When left unchecked, this can lead to diabetes.
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One study from 2012 reported that 12–14% of adults had type 2 diabetes, while 37–38% were classified as pre-diabetic.
This means that 50% of all adults have diabetes or pre-diabetes. India is approx 35% not much behind.
Regular exercise can help you lose weight and increase insulin sensitivity.
Increased insulin sensitivity means your cells are better able to use the available sugar in your bloodstream.
Exercise also helps your muscles use blood sugar for energy and muscle contraction.
If you have problems with blood sugar control, you should routinely check your levels. This will help you learn how you respond to different activities and keep your blood sugar levels from getting either too high or too low (2Trusted Source).
Good forms of exercise include weight lifting, brisk walking, running, biking, dancing, hiking, swimming and more.
Your body breaks carbs down into sugars (mostly glucose), and then insulin moves the sugars into cells.
When you eat too many carbs or have problems with insulin function, this process fails and blood glucose levels rise.
However, there are several things you can do about this.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends controlling carb intake by counting carbs or using a food exchange system (3).
You can read more in this article on healthy low-carb eating with diabetes.
Fiber slows carb digestion and sugar absorption. For these reasons, it promotes a more gradual rise in blood sugar levels.
Furthermore, the type of fiber you eat may play a role.
There are two kinds of fiber: insoluble and soluble. While both are important, soluble fiber specifically has been shown to lower blood sugar levels (11Trusted Source, 12Trusted Source, 13Trusted Source).
Foods that are high in fiber include vegetables, fruits, legumes and whole grains.
The recommended daily intake of fiber is about 25 grams for women and 38 grams for men. That’s about 14 grams for every 1,000 calories (15).
Drinking enough water may help you keep your blood sugar levels within healthy limits.
In addition to preventing dehydration, it helps your kidneys flush out the excess blood sugar through urine.
One observational study showed that those who drank more water had a lower risk of developing high blood sugar levels (16Trusted Source).
Consequently, controlling your weight promotes healthy blood sugar levels and has been shown to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (22, 23Trusted Source, 25Trusted Source, 26Trusted Source, 27Trusted Source, 28Trusted Source).
Here are some helpful tips for controlling portions:
- Measure and weigh portions.
- Use smaller plates.
- Avoid all-you-can-eat restaurants.
- Read food labels and check the serving sizes.
- Keep a food journal.
- Eat slowly.
Foods with a low glycemic index include seafood, meat, eggs, oats, barley, beans, lentils, legumes, sweet potatoes, corn, yams, most fruits and non-starchy vegetables.
One study showed that exercise, relaxation and meditation significantly reduced stress and lowered blood sugar levels for students (40Trusted Source).
Exercises and relaxation methods like yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction can also correct insulin secretion problems in chronic diabetes (40Trusted Source, 41Trusted Source, 42Trusted Source, 43Trusted Source, 44Trusted Source).
“What gets measured gets managed.”
Measuring and monitoring blood glucose levels can also help you control them.
For example, keeping track helps you determine whether you need to make adjustments in meals or medications (31Trusted Source).
Try measuring your levels every day, and keeping track of the numbers in a log.
Sleep deprivation decreases the release of growth hormones and increases cortisol levels. Both of these play an important role in blood sugar control (47Trusted Source, 50Trusted Source, 51Trusted Source).
Furthermore, good sleep is about both quantity and quality. It is best to get a sufficient amount of high-quality sleep every night (49Trusted Source).
Examples include deficiencies in the minerals chromium and magnesium.
However, the mechanisms behind this are not completely known. Studies also report mixed findings.
Chromium-rich foods include egg yolks, whole-grain products, high-bran cereals, coffee, nuts, green beans, broccoli and meat.
In one study, people with the highest magnesium intake had a 47% lower risk of becoming diabetic (60Trusted Source).
Magnesium-rich foods include dark leafy greens, whole grains, fish, dark chocolate, bananas, avocados and beans.
Apple cider vinegar has many benefits for your health.
What’s more, studies show that vinegar significantly influences your body’s response to sugars and improves insulin sensitivity (63Trusted Source, 65Trusted Source, 66Trusted Source, 67Trusted Source, 68Trusted Source, 69).
To incorporate apple cider vinegar into your diet, you can add it to salad dressings or mix 2 teaspoons in 8 ounces of water.
However, it’s important to check with your doctor before taking apple cider vinegar if you are already taking medications that lower blood sugar.
Cinnamon is known to have many health benefits.
Cinnamon also acts in a similar way as insulin, although at a much slower rate (77Trusted Source).
An effective dose is 1–6 grams of cinnamon per day, or about 0.5–2 teaspoons (78).
Berberine is the active component of a Chinese herb that’s been used to treat diabetes for thousands of years.
What’s more, berberine may be as effective as some blood sugar lowering drugs. This makes it one of the most effective supplements for those with diabetes or pre-diabetes (79Trusted Source, 82Trusted Source).
Additionally, it may have some side effects. Diarrhea, constipation, flatulence and abdominal pain have been reported (84Trusted Source).
A common dosage protocol for berberine is 1,500 mg per day, taken before meals as 3 doses of 500 mg.
You can read more about this impressive supplement here: Berberine – The World’s Most Effective Supplement?
Fenugreek seeds are a great source of soluble fiber, which can help control blood sugar levels.
Many studies have shown that fenugreek can effectively lower blood sugar in diabetics. It also helps reduce fasting glucose and improve glucose tolerance (85Trusted Source, 86Trusted Source, 87Trusted Source, 88Trusted Source).
Although not that popular, fenugreek can easily be added to baked goods to help treat diabetes. You can also make fenugreek flour or brew it into tea (89Trusted Source).
The recommended dose of fenugreek seeds is 2–5 grams per day. If you’d like to try it, Amazon has a large selection available.
It’s a no-brainer that maintaining a healthy weight will improve your health and prevent future health problems.
Weight control also promotes healthy blood sugar levels and has been shown to reduce your risk of developing diabetes.
Even a 7% reduction in body weight can decrease your risk of developing diabetes by up to 58%, and it seems to work even better than medication (90Trusted Source).
You should also be conscious of your waistline, as it is perhaps the most important weight-related factor for estimating your diabetes risk.
A measurement of 35 inches (88.9 cm) or more for women and 40 inches (101.6 cm) or more for men is associated with an increased risk of developing insulin resistance, high blood sugar levels and type 2 diabetes (94).
Having a healthy waist measurement may be even more important than your overall weight (94).
Make sure to check with your doctor before making lifestyle changes or trying new supplements.
This is particularly important if you have problems with blood sugar control or if you are taking medications to lower your sugar levels.
That being said, if you are diabetic or have problems with blood sugar control, then you should start doing something about it as soon as possible.